Wendsler Nosie, former Chairman of the San Carlos Apache Tribe of Arizona, and David Smith, a lawyer who specializes in Native American litigation, spoke to law students Tuesday night about the protection of Native American sacred sites. The two experts focused on the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange and Conservation Act, which traded 2,400 acres, much of it tribal land, to the Australian-British mining company Resolution Copper, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto, the largest mining company in the world. Nosie is the leader of the Occupy Oak Flat, a movement which is in opposition to the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange, and he intends to protest until the Act is repealed.Smith said Nosie is a leader not only for the Apache but also for other native tribes.“[Nosie] is taking the issue of sovereignty and the importance of protecting culture and religion, and he has shown how it should be and how it should be preserved,” Smith said.Resolution Copper plans to use a mining method called “block caving,” which involves blasting the ore body deep underground before removing the copper. Environmentalists around the world oppose the method for its ecological risks.To start the lecture, Smith provided a review of the legal history of the protection of exercise of religions and focused on its application to Native American religions.The bill was proposed 13 times and denied, Smith said. He said it was only passed when it was included as a midnight rider onto the 2015 United States National Defense Authorization Act.“So within this 550-page piece of legislature regarding defense spending, there’s this 10-page bill turning the Apache sacred site over to the Rio Tinto mining company,” he said.Nosie said he was concerned people were not fully aware of the consequences that this mining project would have on the spiritual life of Apaches and provided a brief history of the oppression of Native Americans. He said without the knowledge of the foundations of Native American history and culture, it is difficult for Americans to have informed opinions about issues such as the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange.“The sad thing that I come across in fighting is that it seems like America knows nothing about all these issues,” he said. “It’s really alarming because it goes back to what we say about the possibilities that may occur down the road if America doesn’t wake up.”The bill did not initially have any support outside of Arizona congressmen, due to the fact that the congressmen from other states recognized the lack of transparency within the bill, Nosie said.“Nobody, other than our own congressional state leaders, supported [the bill],” he said. “And so, in 13 attempts in Washington it never passed because the other congressmen from the other states felt the same: that there was no transparency and that this wasn’t a good bill, not only for the religion part, but economically, environmentally, nationally and internationally.”More information can be found at apache-stronghold.com Tags: Apache, David Smith, Occupy Oak Flat, Resolution Copper, Rio Tinto mining company, Southeast Land Exchange, Wendsler Nosie
Photo: Dan Rahn “Carbon monoxide, radon, lead, asbestos, molds, mildew and tobacco smoke all contribute to poor indoor air quality,” said Jorge Atiles of the University of Georgia. Carbon monoxide can be one of the home’s deadliest pollutants. But it’s one of the easiest to deal with. The colorless, odorless gas kills by blocking the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Fuel-burning furnaces, water heaters, ranges, space heaters, wood stoves and fireplaces can produce it. Carbon Monoxide Deadly In Georgia, the UGA Extension Service is the contact for the “Healthy Indoor Air for America’s Homes” program. FACS county agents can tell you more about making sure the air in your home is clean and healthy. High humidity indoors, for instance, can make molds and mildew grow more, triggering asthma attacks. Atiles said his college has joined state and federal agencies, and community, industry and environmental groups to help combat the problems. October Emphasis in Georgia Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Atiles is an Extension Service housing specialist and assistant professor in the UGA College of Family and Consumer Sciences. He said these indoor health hazards can lead to increased respiratory infections and asthma, and even worse. “People can die as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning,” Atiles said. “Dealing effectively with allergies and asthma requires a combination of efforts that include appropriate medical care,” Atiles said. Here are the best ways to keep carbon monoxide from becoming a problem, Atiles said. Parents’ commitment to smoke outside can spare their children the respiratory infections related to secondhand smoke. Some indoor air problems are easy to reduce, Atiles said. Secondhand tobacco smoke is a good example. Indoor air greatly affects allergies and asthma, too. More than 50 million Americans suffer from these diseases. The EPA figures about 4,000 die each year from asthma. To call attention to indoor-air-related illnesses, Gov. Roy Barnes declared October to be “Home Indoor Air Quality Awareness Month” in Georgia. Have a qualified technician clean and check your heating system each year. Make sure the chimney flue is open when you start a fire. Maintain a fresh air supply anytime you use fuel-fired space heaters. Use a vent fan whenever you use your kitchen stove top. Never let a car warm up in an attached garage without opening the garage door. “The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that 7,500 to 15,000 children under 18 months are hospitalized each year for severe respiratory infections as a result of second-hand smoke,” Atiles said. “These simple things can make a tremendous difference in the seriousness of these diseases,” he said. “If parents would commit to stepping outside when they smoke and not smoke in their cars, we could tremendously reduce these problems,” he said. Extension Service Contacts Pollen and outdoor air pollution influence these diseases, of course. But many problems are found inside homes and schools. Allergies, Asthma, Molds & Mildew The goal, he said, is to help people learn how to assess home and office air quality and combat the problems associated with poor air quality. It’s part of the national program, “Healthy Indoor Air for America’s Homes.” Mention air pollution, and most people think of factories, freeways and foul-smelling smog. But many pollutants are inside your home. People, though, can do much more than just go to the doctor. Atiles cites two things that reduce indoor molds and mildew. One, keep indoor humidity levels low. And two, regularly change or clean heating and air-conditioning filters. Contact your county Extension Service agent. And visit this national Web site: www.montana.edu/wwwcxair.
Volume XXIXNumber 1Page 17 By Robert R. WesterfieldUniversity ofGeorgiaThere’s no better way to accent a deck, patio or porch than withannuals in containers. The endless variety of colors availablefor sunny spots, shady spots and spots in-between is almostlimitless.But before you invest in plants, look at the most importantcontributors to success: site selection, soil preparation andplant selection.Other factors such as watering, fertilizing and controlling pestsare certainly important. But most failures with annuals in thelandscape or containers are due to poor choices of site, soil orplants.Where to startLook first at your site. Is it shady all day, shady during theheat of the day, full sun only in the morning, full sun only inthe afternoon or full sun all day? This is important to know.You’ll need to base your plant selection on it.Go out at different times of the day to assess the amount ofsunlight an area gets. Some plants can grow in varying amounts ofsunlight. Others will quickly decline in the wrong exposure.Soil preparation is critical, too. When you look at a sicklycontainer plant, there’s a 90-percent chance the problem is dueto something happening at the root level. Usually it is due to apoor soil mix or overwatering the plant.Buy a quality container potting mix for plants, free from diseaseor weed seed. Be sure to use a container large enough that theroots can expand through the potting soil.DrainageAnother critical factor is good drainage. Be careful of thosecontainers that have catch basins for excess water. They’re nicein theory but create root-rot problems. If you use these, it’s agood idea to tilt the container after a few minutes afterwatering and drain out the excess water.You’ll really be excited about plant performance when you have agood, healthy root system.Finally, be sure you select the right plant. You know your site,so this job should be relatively easy.Impatiens love shade. Annual Vinca loves full sun. Salvia lovesabout a half day of full sun. Petunias like sun but perform bestin the spring and fall, not during the hot summer. The list goeson and on.The variety tag in bedding plant trays is a good place to startlooking for different flowers’ light requirements.Your county University of Georgia Extension Service office isanother good place to look. Ask for a copy of “Flowering Annualsfor Georgia Gardens” and “Container Gardening.”(Bob Westerfield is an Extension Service consumerhorticulturist with the University of Georgia College ofAgricultural and Environmental Sciences.)