Wendsler Nosie, former Chairman of the San Carlos Apache Tribe of Arizona, and David Smith, a lawyer who specializes in Native American litigation, spoke to law students Tuesday night about the protection of Native American sacred sites. The two experts focused on the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange and Conservation Act, which traded 2,400 acres, much of it tribal land, to the Australian-British mining company Resolution Copper, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto, the largest mining company in the world. Nosie is the leader of the Occupy Oak Flat, a movement which is in opposition to the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange, and he intends to protest until the Act is repealed.Smith said Nosie is a leader not only for the Apache but also for other native tribes.“[Nosie] is taking the issue of sovereignty and the importance of protecting culture and religion, and he has shown how it should be and how it should be preserved,” Smith said.Resolution Copper plans to use a mining method called “block caving,” which involves blasting the ore body deep underground before removing the copper. Environmentalists around the world oppose the method for its ecological risks.To start the lecture, Smith provided a review of the legal history of the protection of exercise of religions and focused on its application to Native American religions.The bill was proposed 13 times and denied, Smith said. He said it was only passed when it was included as a midnight rider onto the 2015 United States National Defense Authorization Act.“So within this 550-page piece of legislature regarding defense spending, there’s this 10-page bill turning the Apache sacred site over to the Rio Tinto mining company,” he said.Nosie said he was concerned people were not fully aware of the consequences that this mining project would have on the spiritual life of Apaches and provided a brief history of the oppression of Native Americans. He said without the knowledge of the foundations of Native American history and culture, it is difficult for Americans to have informed opinions about issues such as the Southeast Arizona Land Exchange.“The sad thing that I come across in fighting is that it seems like America knows nothing about all these issues,” he said. “It’s really alarming because it goes back to what we say about the possibilities that may occur down the road if America doesn’t wake up.”The bill did not initially have any support outside of Arizona congressmen, due to the fact that the congressmen from other states recognized the lack of transparency within the bill, Nosie said.“Nobody, other than our own congressional state leaders, supported [the bill],” he said. “And so, in 13 attempts in Washington it never passed because the other congressmen from the other states felt the same: that there was no transparency and that this wasn’t a good bill, not only for the religion part, but economically, environmentally, nationally and internationally.”More information can be found at apache-stronghold.com Tags: Apache, David Smith, Occupy Oak Flat, Resolution Copper, Rio Tinto mining company, Southeast Land Exchange, Wendsler Nosie
By Bodie V. PennisiUniversity of GeorgiaAlong with evergreens, poinsettias embody the holiday spirit andhelp create festive displays. The challenge is deciding how manyand what color, leaf shape, plant size and form to buy.You can choose among plants with traditional red, strong white,creamy white, light pink, solid pink, bright orange-red, deeppurple-red and various marbled or speckled bracts. Plants rangefrom 4-inch pots to 18-inch hanging baskets, living wreaths,topiaries and 3-gallon floor planters.You can use poinsettia stems as cut flowers in arrangements, too.If you supply enough water, as when using florist foam, some newpoinsettia cultivars can last up to two weeks as cut flowers.Buying the best is easy (Bodie Pennisi is an Extension Service horticulturist with theUniversity of Georgia College of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences.) Look for Georgia-grown plants. This year the crop promises tobe phenomenal. Locally grown plants may cost more, but they keepbetter. They’re usually sold to florist shops and gardencenters.Select plants with fully colored and expanded bracts. (Bractsare the colored leaves. The actual flowers are the yellowcenters.) Avoid plants with too much green around the bractedges, a sign that it was shipped before it was mature enough.Choose poinsettias with dense, rich green leaves all alongthe stem. They should be well branched and proportioned and abouttwo and one-half times the height of the pot.Examine leaves for “hitchhikers.” Silverleaf whiteflies geton the underside of the leaves and suck the juices. This is thegiveaway: whiteflies excrete “honeydew” onto the leaves below.Don’t buy plants with sticky leaves and dots on the leafundersides. The dots are whitefly nymphs.Look closely at the roots. White and light tan roots thathave grown to the sides of the pot are signs of a healthy plant.Brown roots or few roots may indicate disease.Don’t buy plants with weak stems, few bracts or any signs ofwilting, breaking or drooping. Often in stores poinsettias arecrowded. Sometimes they’re displayed in paper, plastic or meshsleeves. They need their space. The longer they stay sleeved, thefaster their quality deteriorates.When you take your poinsettia home, protect it from chillingwinds and temperatures below 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Place it in asleeve or large shopping bag.Once you get home, place it where it looks best. It will lastabout three weeks in fairly dark places. Don’t put it near a colddraft or excessive heat or near an appliance, fireplace orventilating duct.Water a poinsettia only when the soil feels dry to the touch.But don’t allow it to wilt, as it may cause leaves to drop.Overwatering is a common cause of plant loss. Don’t leave theplant in standing water. This, too, may cause leaf drop. Alwaysremove a plant from any decorative container before watering itand allow the water to drain completely.Don’t fertilize it during the blooming season. This willcause the plant to lose some of its quality.After the holiday season is over, move the poinsettia to abright spot in either a south-, east- or west-facing window.Eventually, the bracts will start to fall off. By early April,cut the plant back, leaving four to six nodes or segments on thestem. At this point, it can be grown outdoors in full sun.Fertilize it weekly with a balanced, all-purpose fertilizer atthe same rate you give houseplants.Trim your poinsettia in June and plant it in a 1-gallon potor large indoor planter. Trim back new growth again around July 1and again by mid-August. Keep fertilizing through spring andsummer, applying nutrition once every two to three weeks as fallnears. With enough water and nutrition, poinsettias can grow ashigh as 5 feet.Poinsettias are nonpoisonous and safe for display aroundchildren and pets.
– maintains US$5000 per household unrealistic As the conversation and debates continue in relation to how the revenues from oil should be spent, Opposition Leader Bharrat Jagdeo has opined that Guyanese are being fed false hopes.Warning citizens not to be fooled by the proposal being touted that every household would get US$5,000 annually, he has described this as far from becoming a reality.A former President himself, Jagdeo noted that the debate has now shifted from whether there are enough resources to fund such a proposal to how much should be given out.“I am so unhappy that we have shifted…the debate to how much we are giving out, rather than whether we have money to give out from 2020,” Jagdeo stated.Warning that this is just another false hope be peddled with the probable intention of garnering political support, Jagdeo has said that monies accumulated from oil alone cannot deliver on that promise.He explained that if 200,000 households were to benefit from US$5,000 annually, that totals some US$1 billion, but Guyana will receive less than that.“That is over 300 percent of what we are collecting.How could US$1 billion be 2 to 5 percent of total revenue? And that is in the newspaper and nobody challenges it,” he declared.“It is just like people are just saying these weird things and (they pass) off for analysis and good economics; and there is a whole debate surrounding it. Just look at the numbers!” he admonished.Jagdeo reminded that, given the expenses to be repaid to ExxonMobil for oil production, along with the need to service the Natural Resource Fund, there will be no money to give out.He noted that it could take as much as five years before Guyana starts to see major earnings when oil production starts in 2020. This is based on projections that 75 percent of revenues would cover most of the cost of production, including a US$460 million pre-contract cost.“That’s why most people believe we are not getting big bucks until 2025. That’s when you start getting more money, not 2020! I pointed this out already,” he stated.Jagdeo noted also that, in the early years, Guyana is projected to collect some US$300 million.He is in favour of conditional cash transfers as a means of improving the livelihoods of Guyanese, as opposed to simply distributing money when oil revenues begin to flow. “I support conditional transfers. We’ve done that before, and we need to help poor people,” he said.Asked to elaborate on the Opposition’s utilisation of conditional cash transfers while in Government, Jagdeo referred to a $50 million partnership with the Guyana Bank for Trade and Industry Limited (GBTI) on the Women of Worth (WoW) programme. This, he said, was an initiative through which single-parent women could receive interest-free loans.He suggested that as a means of introducing concessional transfers, pensioners could also be given a tiny amount every month, to enable them to get tested for diabetes, hypertension, and other non-communicable diseases, to reduce the cost burden on the health sector.The Opposition Leader has put forward other issues he had with the idea of cash transfers, and recommended that portions of the oil revenue be injected into education and job creation.He said, “What about the years when oil prices sink so low…for long periods, like it has happened in some countries, and people….think they’ll get this money all the time? We have to help them create jobs, we have to help them with education.”He continued: “So why not put the money into paying for scholarships? We take $100 million or $50 million and we put it to help our kids who do well go to the best universities around the world; and upgrade our university to a topnotch university with a global standard by bringing in new lecturers. That sort of thing would help us in the long run.”Jagdeo’s comments have resulted directly from the proposal made by Working People’s Alliance (WPA) executive member Professor Clive Thomas that the Government should make annual cash transfers to every household when it begins to receive its net inflow of revenue from oil production.Alliance for Change (AFC) Leader Raphael Trotman has not outrightly rejected the proposal, but has said it is possible for such a plan to be structured so that Guyanese receive benefits.“We want to ensure that our young people have educational grants. We want to ensure the people who receive cash transfers are registered in our tax system and have paid taxes; and not (now) turning up (to) say, ‘I am here to collect’,” Trotman suggested.Finance Minister Winston Jordan has also stated that the monies could be used to improve various sectors in education, health, youth, and small business development.“I would rather hear more debate about using our resources to create opportunities for people, so that they themselves could have lasting incomes as opposed to short-term incomes,” he said.